While in a natural environment, the stormwater predominantly gets absorbed by plants or the soil, or it evaporates, however in urban setups the land is covered and is mostly impervious, not allowing the stormwater to pass through. This stormwater interacts with the surroundings, trapping gross pollutants, coarse sediments, nutrients and becoming highly polluted stormwater before joining our waterways via stormwater drains. Therefore, effectively managing this stormwater can help meet the water requirements in both urban and rural areas making it highly vital in this age and time.
Stormwater Management is the method of collection and treatment of stormwater so that it can be utilised for our day to day activities. Therefore, managing the quantity and quality of stormwater is called Stormwater Management. Effective stormwater management techniques aim at trapping the highest amounts of stormwater and effective treatment of the stormwater via the treatment train, thereby making most of the stormwater useful for us.
- Stormwater Retention/Detention – Utilising water tanks to store stormwater that runs off from the hard-impervious surfaces is called stormwater retention. These retain water for long periods and the storage tank is aimed to have water all year long. However, Stormwater detention tanks only store the water for a limited period of time. They are a part of a drainage system and designed to manage excess stormwater.
- Stormwater Treatment – Effective treatment of stormwater aims at removal of gross pollutants, coarse sediments, nutrients and the dissolved heavy metals to the desired levels as per the guidelines within the area. Utilising a treatment train, stormwater goes through primary treatment, secondary treatment and finally tertiary treatment making it fit for consumption.
Therefore, Stormwater Treatment aims at efficiently trapping the stormwater and then effectively treating it, thereby making the stormwater fit for consumption.